Despite the stress placed on chinese literature and learning, vietnamese, enriched with chinese literary terms, remained the language of the people, while chinese was used primarily as an administrative language by a small elite. Meanwhile, among the peasant class there was also a heightened sense of identity fostered by the spread of buddhism by sea from india to vietnam by the early third century. The tombs of that era often reveal models in baked earth of domains with outer areas dotted with watchtowers, houses, granaries and stables. The veneration of local genies, often patriots or founders of villages, remained widespread.
The ly dynasty
Buddhism, coming from india by sea and from china by land, was conspicuous from the 2nd and 6th centuries, with the town of luy lau (in present-day bac ninh province) having 20 towers, 500 monks and 15 already-translated sutras. The trung sister revolt (see below) ended the tradition of local hereditary leadership. In the province of giao chau, one of the administrative units into which the han chinese rulers had divided the vietnamese kingdom, local hereditary lords exercised control over the peasant population, just as they had while part of nam viet.